Jowar or sorghum is one of the popular fodder and food crops of dryland agriculture. Overall, 8 to 10 million tonnes of Jowar is produced annually by cultivating it on 17 to 18 million hectares of land. India and Africa are two primary producers of sorghum. Also, there is an acceptance that the origin of this crop is Abyssinia. And it came to the USA and European countries from there. Moreover, Jowar is mainly grown in central and peninsular India.
In this way, the major Jowar producers in India are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (The Bundelkhand region), Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. The rest of the Indian states grow sorghum only for fodder purposes.
Sorghum farming provides food for humans. They use this crop to prepare Roti or Bhakri. Apart from this, the crop is also used for poultry ration, cattle feed and other industrial purposes since its green and dry fodder is a vital roughage for feeding cattle.
Climate and Soil for Sorghum Farming
Farmers can do sorghum farming in various soils, but the clayey loam soil rich in humus is best for a high and healthier yield. Also, the crop can wear mild acidity to mild salinity and stay healthier under pH 5.5 to 8.0. And the drainage system must be sound in this farming for optimum results. After deciding about soil, farmers must plough the land with the help of good tractors like and other farming machines.
Sorghum farming is mostly done in Bengal and Bihar’s humid regions and arid regions of U.P, Rajasthan. It can be grown at an atmospheric temperature of 15℃ to 40℃. Also, the rainfall for this crop must be from 400 to 1000 mm.
After harvesting Ravi’s crop, one deep summer ploughing must be given with an efficient tractor like Mahindra jivo 365 and mouldboard plough. And the Massey 7250 price is fair in the market. Also, until the onset of the monsoon, leave the field exposed to the sun. And plough the land twice with the onset of monsoon. After it, you should apply harrowing and planking to take the soil to a fine tilth. Also, level the field to distribute rainwater equally throughout the area.
Varieties of Sorghum
SPV-462: It matures in 110 – 115 days. An average yield of 35 – 40 Ton/Hectare
CSV-13: It matures in 110 – 115 days. An average yield of 35 – 40 Ton/Hectare
CSV-15: It matures in 110 – 115 days. An average yield of 40 – 45 Ton/Hectare
CSH-1: It matures in 90 – 100 days. An average yield of 30 – 35 Ton/Hectare
M-35-1: It matures in 120 – 125 days. An average yield of 15 – 18 Ton/Hectare
CSH-5: It matures in 110 – 115 days. An average yield of 40 – 45 Ton/Hectare
CSV-8R: It matures in 120 – 125 days. An average yield of 20 – 22 Ton/Hectare
CSH-6: It matures in 90 – 100 days. An average yield of 50 – 60 Ton/Hectare
Swati: It matures in 120 – 125 days. An average yield of 24 – 28 Ton/Hectare
CSH-9: It matures in 110 – 115 days. An average yield of 45 – 50 Ton/Hectare
CSV-14R: It matures in 115 – 120 days. An average yield of 20 – 24 Ton/Hectare
CSH-10: It matures in 110 – 115 days. An average yield of 45 – 50 Ton/Hectare
Selection 3: It matures in 105 – 110 days. An average yield of 5 – 6 Ton/Hectare
CSH-11: It matures in 110 – 115 days. An average yield of 45 – 50 Ton/Hectare
SPV-1359: It matures in 125 – 130 days. An average yield of 25 – 30 Ton/Hectare
CSH-14: It matures in 100 – 105 days. An average yield of 45 – 50 Ton/Hectare
Phule Yashoda: It matures in 120 – 125 days. An average yield of 18 – 20 Ton/Hectare
CSN-15R: It matures in 115 – 120 days. An average yield of 32- 35 Ton/Hectare
SPV-84: It matures in 120 – 125 days. An average yield of 20 – 22 Ton/Hectare
We can grow sorghum in all seasons of the year. Farmers grow it as a Kharif season crop in northern India, Rabi and summer season crop in southern India. Keep the row spacing of 40-45 cm and plant spacing of 15-20 cm for sowing operations.
The sorghum crop needs around 50 cm of well-distributed rain for better growth. The knee-height stage of the plants is critical for irrigation. Flowering and grain filling stages also need irrigation without excessive water.
The average maturity time for this crop is 100-120 days. Primarily, farmers use two methods for harvesting: stalk-cut and cutting of warheads by sickles. In some countries, farmers also use sorghum harvesters for harvesting purposes. After cutting operations, the threshing takes place, which is done by beating plants with sticks.
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